Causes of Population Density in the capital city of Hargeisa, Somaliland



Hargeisa  is   the  capital city  of  Somaliland  it is  located in a mountainous  area , in  an enclosed  valley  of the  north western  Galgodon  [ogo] highlands  its sits  at an elevation of  1,334meters  above  sea level ,   , the  city borders south  with haud  savannah region  gabiley in the west  ,  sahil region  to the east  and  north  to the  coastal plain  of guban , in climatically  Hargeisa  have been warm  temperate climate reaching  between  16c° to 20c° in winter  and 20c° to 30c° in summer [ climate  of Somalia 4 november 2016]  but  the  last two  decade  it  has been warming  due to  the  climate  change  which

influenced  the  life  style and  the  behavior  of the  population  in Hargeisa  and its  outskirt  apart from  this  ,  the  collapse of Somali central  government  and  the start  of  civil  war  in 1991, snm secessionist  in the north western part  of the  country  unilaterally declared  independence ,  a slow process of infrastructural  reconstruction  subsequently  begun  and  other  towns  in the  regions .                                          [ jimcaaale  abdirahman  , academic for peace  and development  p.19  ; 2002 ] since  1991, Hargeisa  has  undergone  a large  scale  facelift . the  renovations  have been largely financed  by  local  entrepreneurs  as well as   Somali  expatriates  sending  remittance funds  to relatives  in the region  through  some of  the  various  Somali-owned  money  transfers  operators [ uk  Somali remmitance  survey ], however  the  immense progress  that have been ongoing  in the  capital city  of Hargeisa   for the  last  two decades  created  a lot of opportunity   to  inhabitants  of  Hargeisa  and  among the  other  Somaliland  citizens  in the  regions  this  inturn  caused  the  city  to  be  densely  populated  and  the  increase  immigrant peoples  coming   from  neighboring  regions  to  the  capital city  of Hargeisa also  to  the   neighboring  countries  especially  who have  largest  border with  this  country . this  inturn  caused  sophisticated  problems  amongst  these  high  crime  rates  ,  increase of  rate  of  accidental  due  to lack of  social  amenities  such  as roads

1.2:  factors caused   population  density  in Hargeisa

According  to the  UNDP  report in  the year  2005 the  population  of  the  capital city  have been  estimated  to be around  560,028 while  according  to CIA  factbook the  hargeis’s population is  estimated  to be  around 760,000 as of  2015[ the world  factbook, Somalia 6 december 2013], it is the largest  city  in the world  by  population  size . the urban area occupies  75 square  kilometers  with  a population  density  of  12,600 inhabitants  per square  kilometer however  due to  to the strive   of  the  population  who are  continually  transforming  from the  life style  of  rural  to  urban  the city  is not grown with its infrastructures  this  inturn  contributed   to the  mess to the  scene  of  beauty in the capital city  especially in the  rainy  seasons  where   the  floods laid down thousands  of tons  of soil , then  the running  cars cause  the soil raise  up  and  mixed with the  air  then it  is inhaled  by  the waking  around the streets  which inturn  bring them severe  diseases amongst  respiratory  dieases however  the following  factors  contributed  to the population growth  in the capital city of Hargeisa :

Opportunity  seeking: most peoples  who live  in the  other  regions  encounter  less opportunity compared  to those  who live  in the  capital city , as  capital city hargiesa bring  together  different  peoples  who came from  different  places  in  the  country  for the  sake  of  opportunity  these  mostly  youths  who in the  age  of 20- 25 years ,  in regarding to  thousands  of peoples  are left  from  their original  region  where  they  grown  and came  to Hargeisa  in order  to exceed  their  ambition

Political  stability :  the piece and stability  that  fully developed  in the  country  for  the  last  two decades  are  among the factors that contributed  to the  higly  growth  of population  in the capital city  of hagreisa , during the civil wars  th have  occurred   in the  caused huge  destruction  resulted from these civil wars  despite thses  peoples  learned  lessons  from what  they  have seen  during  the  wars , however  people  begun to value  the  existence of piece nad make  a development  towards standard  of living ,  education and also every aspect  of life .

Technological  advancements: the  rise  of new  technological  advancements  such  radios ,  and mobiles  contributed  to the growth of population in  hargeisa  in  a such of different means- as the  listening  of radios  reached  from  a places  where  it was  previous   un accessible  , they  become  aware   the  opportunities  that is available  to the  urban  centers  so they migrate  from  rural  to the  urban for searching  employment  opportunities

Absenteeism  of municipality   role  : due to  absent of  the  role  of municipal  government , people  begun  to settle  a messy  way – they  begun to  construct  their houses  from dangerous  places   such   the ares   which vulnerable   to the regular flooding

Social  factors:   human being  are  social  , this means that  they  like to lives  as  a groups , this  behavior make most of the people  to prefer  living   as groups  rather isolating ,despite  these ,  Somaliland  peoples  are said  to socialable  as they  prefer   living  together

Life  expectancy:  is the  average  age  of  a person can expect  to live  in  aparticular ,apart from  this  the increase  rate  of life  expectancy   at  population  living in the  capital  city  is  due  to  the  improvement  of health  facilities’ for most   of the  districts  in the capital  city  of Hargeisa   a lot maternal  care have  been  made  during  the  last   decade  and  this  inturn contributed  to the  welfare  of pregnant  mothers


1.2 : Measures  taking  to make  the  city  sustainable  and  friendly  to the environment  at municipal level

The major challenges  of  the  capital city  of  Hargeisa  is  the growing  population  that  may  bring  pressure  to the  environment – that  fast  growing   population will tend  to use  more  resources  according  to  the  Somali climate  report  there have been  a forests  at  the  outskirt  of the  city   the   but   when  the  civil wars  occur   across  they  left  severe  traits  amongst  environmental  degradation   however the  following  measures  will help   when  taking  at  municipal level these   include :

Parking  restrictions :   to inforce   parking  restrictions  within  the  centres  of  Hargeisa  will  contribute  to reduction   of carbon monoxide  as  the  long standing  cars  releases  more radiation  compared  moving once , in other  word  these  restrictions  will  will encourage   to the people  to  choose  to car  driving  and  this  will contribute  to the  reduction of  carbon monoxide  by  1%

Encourage  environmentally  friendly vehicles: encouraging  private  citizens  ,bus  and  taxi  companies  In Hargeisa  to use  friendly  vehicles  who are  releasing  less  exhaust , in addition to this  people  who drive  vehicles  releasing  less  carbon emissions  will have  access   to free and especially assigned  parking

Creating  environmental zones:   local  municipality   have to lobbying  the central government  for the  right  to establish  environmental zones  in the down town area  only environmentally friendly cars  and  trucks would be  allowed

discourage  the use of plastic bags: plastics  are non-biodegradable , it has  an adversely impact  on the environment, plastics prevent  plants to  appear their flower ,  or to regenerate into newly  once  . , and take  their  role  for  polluting the environment  , Somaliland  banned  the  use of  plastic  bags when it seen its impact on the environment , and towards the   nature system  however it is used as  smuggler

Waste management  : in urbanized areas  especially in Hargeisa  wastes  generated  by  the cities,  qat is accounts to  be the most  according to the  other  domestic wastes , in urban areas  of our country where  the scene of beauty have to be seen  is completely  hidden by the waste of Qat   in addition, chewers of Qat  tend  to urinate  frequently  more compared  to the usual person  which bring  them to   urinate

on the public  places  such  streets  and this contribute  to the  contaminations resulted  from the  consumption  of Qat in other word  waste of Qat  contributes to the loss  of  soil fertility as it was originally  grown  poisonous pesticides apart  from this, taking awareness local  government  have  manage  wastes  generated  by the city


1.3: measure  taking at  individual level

there are  many things  that  we  can do to minimize  our  car bon  foot print  and raise   our standard  of living   here below  are mentioned  some of them :

use  public  cars :  this  is an  important  factor  that  will contribute  to reduction of  agreen house  gouses   and  also  economically  friendly  . to have  everyone  a car  will double  amount of  carbon  dioxide  in the  air

use renewable  energy:  using  renewable is unlike the other source , it can be found in everywhere in country and that is means  it can be accessible to everyone  whether rural areas or urban centers. further more it is a self regeneratable  that is  friendly to the environment these include geothermal energy  solar energy , however obtaining clean energy  for everyone  is one of the factors contributes  for the conservation of the environment and sustainability of  non renewable resource  in order to left  resource  for the future generation

reduce :   to reduce  your  consumption  is one  of the  important factors  contributing  to the reduction  of the  environmental damages  amongst the  a which  may alter  the constituents of the  soil  and  harm to its  nature

Abdirasak  Hassan ali

Tell  :0634675486



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