There is a similarity between Ethiopia and Somalia. Let us look at the historical facts that happened in the past for the two nations. Ethiopia was a combination of two countries which were Ethiopia and Eritrea. The combinations were created 1952 but ended in 1991. Ethiopia was never colonized, even though Italian fascist invaded and ruled seven years in Second World War. Ethiopia has many diversity community and ethnic background. Ethiopia has different culture, language, religion and creeds.
As I mentioned earlier, Ethiopia and Eritrea were separated, and Eritrea became an Italian colony whereas Ethiopia enjoyed the partition of Africa. After the defeat of the Italian colonial army, in 1942, Eritrea came under the administrated by the British Military Administration until 1952. Unfortunately, the United Nation General Assembly forced Eritrea to become a federal state with Ethiopia against the wish of the Eritrean people. In addition, in 1962, the king of Ethiopia dissolved the Eritrea parliament. After 30 years of struggle, Eritrea gained its independence in 1991 after defeated the communistic regime of the Ethiopia.
Since 1890 the Eritrea was colonized by the Italian government and was ruled until the Second World War. After Italy was defeated in the Second World War, the British took over and ruled Eritrea since 1952. Same as Ethiopia, Eritrea has many diverse society and ethnic groups. The boundaries of the present-day was created by colonizers that called the partition of Africa or scramble for Africa.
In Africa as well other continents, the ethnic division of the neighboring countries has always been the issue. Boundaries of the Africa countries have been the biggest peace obstacle between Africa nations. For almost 20 years, Ethiopia and Eritrea had a border clash that killed more than 300,000 solders with very short period.
The Prime Minister of the Ethiopia has made a landmark and new vision. Not only has he reached a historical milestone, but it is brilliant and unbelievable movement that achieved one of the African leaders. He simply accepts the reality and convince his people by creating a peace and tranquility between Ethiopia and Eritrea. To end hostile environment between two country, Ethiopia and Eritrea is wonderful idea.
Prime Minister Ahmed Abiy is a good example on the leadership behavior in Africa and particularly in horn of Africa. He initiated the peace, development, democracy and open minded. He started a new chapter and new opportunities that never existed in the horn of Africa. Peace is the key of the human life. The population of the Horn Africa have been starved for peace. Without peace there is no possible to accomplish of education, business, heath and development that is the reality.
The Horn of Africa leaders have to wake up and understand the reality. There is no point that the President of Djibouti has been President for life. Eritrea president to decide whether he wants to allow a multiparty system or to resign. South Sudan leaders have no option, but they must accept the peace or to quit politics and let them South Sudan people to decide their destiny. The President of Sudan must have accepted to vacant the seat of the presidential, because he has been the president of the country more than 24 years. Since the President Daniel Arap Moi resigned, Kenya has been practiced full-fledged democracy. The whole of the Horn of Africa leader must have accepted to vacant the office, or they must have follow up their new role model leader, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia Ahmed Abiy.
Always there is an opportunity, the President Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo has a gold chance to solve the Somalia problem and act like new prime minister of Ethiopia, Ahmed Abiy. The major problem of the Somalia is the issue of Somaliland. If that problem solved, Somalia will be free from chaotic and devastating that have been facing more than 27 years. The issue of terrorist is easy to tackle, the issue of the regional states is easily manageable, and tribal threats will be minimized.
After Somaliland declared withdrawal from the union with Somalia, African countries have accused Somaliland of deliberately breaking the African union declaration about inherited borders from the colonies. Most of the people do not know the history of the unification of the Somali nation, Somalia was an Italian colony and gained its independence from Italy on July 1, 1960. Somaliland gained its independence on June 26, 1960 from Great Britain that had protected it for more than 70 years. After gaining independence, Somaliland unified with Italian Somalia. Though Somaliland and Somalia were united under one government, they operated as two separate countries, with different legal, administrative, and educational systems. However, this apparent unification concealed deep institutional and historical divisions, as the process of unification was itself quickly and chaotically performed. Signs of Southern political and economic dominance in the newly formed state emerged early on, as the Act of Union mandated a unitary, centralized government, not the federal system preferred by Somaliland leaders. Centralization continued under the autocratic regime of Mohamed Siad Barre, Somalia’s leader from 1969 to 1991.
Somalia’s problems are basic with western political style; Somali society has not shared the same values, historical based politics, norms, customs and political culture and vice versa. Somaliland’s political culture is basic with Westminster political style that carries out historically based, widely shared-beliefs, feelings, values that outline and serve as a link between citizens and governments. In contrast, Somalia’s political culture is basic with the Italian political system.
Scholars have proven that the Somali people cannot share the same interest as well as ever make up a single political unity party due to their historical differences. Before the colonial era, the ruler of Somalia was the sultan of Zanzibar. As the historians mentioned, 1892 The Sultan of Zanzibar had given up the ports of Barva, Merca, Mogadishu, and Warsheikh directly to Italy for a term of 25 years for an annual rent of 160,000 rupees. The Italians were free to profit from the coast, but it still remained the property of the Sultan of Zanzibar. In contrast, 1866 Khedive Ismail Pasha, the ruler of Egypt, claimed that Somaliland was part of the Red Sea coastal area that the Turkish Ottoman Empire transferred to his jurisdiction.
To find out a permanent peace in Somalia, it is an inevitable to acknowledge the current president Somalia Mr. Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo to recognize Somaliland sovereignty. At the same time, come to common ground. The success and failed for both countries (Somalia and Somaliland). As Somalis, the reconciliation must come from within their border and not imposed by a foreign entity. Each society in the world has its own unique way of solving their own conflicts through their values, culture, customs and their laws.
A reciprocated relationship between the two nations needs to be reached. The two nations (Somalia and Somaliland) should live peacefully and exchange ideas on improving each other’s political and economic institutions for the sake of the Somali people in the region. The current politicians of the two countries should work to set up an atmosphere that can help lay the groundwork for future generations to work together and strengthen stability in the horn of Africa.
• Respect each other’s differences and ensure the existence of the borders that each country inherited from its colonizer (namely Italy and Britain).
• The promotion of peace, stability and well-being of their two nations
• The two nations should provide security and justice with freedom
• The two countries should work together to create a social market economy that leads to social progress and creates jobs for the youths.
Respect the existence of the borders that each country inherited from the colony
Respect the borders and admit the two nations their voluntary unifications in 1960 with dignity. Accepting in living with differences, agree the aim of unification of two nations, which was behind the creation of the great Somalia, that combine five Somali ethnic backgrounds that lived in the horn of Africa; the Somali Regional Government Ethiopia, Djibouti and Northern Frontier District of Kenya. Now the time has come to face reality, Djibouti has rejected the united greater Somali ideal after it took its independence from France in 1977, the Somali Regional Government of Ethiopia were choosing to be apart of Ethiopia in 1991 after the ousted Ethiopian president dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam, and Northern Frontier District Kenya had chosen to be apart of Kenya.
Somalia must accept the reality that reuniting the greater Somali regions under one flag is a mirage and instead should respect the borders created by the colonizers. The leaders in the African union made the decision to keep the borders drawn by former colonizers to avoid troublesome conflict amongst themselves. Somaliland’s withdrawal from the unity with Somalia is based on the claim that it has taken back its own sovereignty drawn up decades ago by the colonizers.
The promotion of peace, stability and well-being
The warlords who contributed to armed clashes and instability in Somalia over the past decade ended by the overtaking of the Islamic courts. The Islamic court captured the capital of the country, and the warlords and their militia were ousted from the capital. The forces of the Islamic courts flexed their muscles and expanded to many areas after they defeated the warlords in Mogadishu. The Islamic court captured most of the region in Somalia including the South-West region, central Shabel region and central regions. Since the dictator Siad Barre fled the country, it was a first time that stability and peace prevailed in the capital of the Somalia. The Islamic courts succeeded in eliminating Somalia’s notorious warlords.
Since 1991 until now, Somalia has not seen any peace. Even though 30,000 of the African Union Mission (AMISOM) currently supports the weak government and the major cities are under the control of AMISOM and Somali Army. The terrorist group Al Shabab governs most of the country particularly the rural areas. To establish peace and stability in Somalia, it needs help from Somaliland. Somaliland successfully eliminated the radical Islamists in its territory by using a traditional peace process. Somaliland used their culture and old-style customary laws. It solved the problem and accomplished it without any outside assistance.
In the last 26 years, Somalia’s government failed to restore peace in its country. They could not even establish the real peace in the capital, Mogadishu. Every week there are couple of explosions making death and despair common in Somalia. The current government in Somalia can easily recognize Somaliland as a sort of de facto country as other neighbour countries already have done so. Therefore, if Somalia recognizes Somaliland it can potentially become partner in helping Somalia to achieve peace. Both of them can work together bilaterally to eliminate the terrorist groups and other militia groups operating within the Somali peninsula. Somaliland has tremendous experiences in how to adequately fight the terrorism, as it has completely eradicated Islamic extremism activities inside its borders.
Almost 60 per cent of the Somali population are nomadic, they regularly travel with their livestock and move from one place to another for the purpose of herding their livestock. The nomadic lifestyle is dependent on shifting and transporting livestock based on fluctuations in the weather.
The nomadic Somalis of both Somalia and Somaliland have no care for the concept of borders, as they move their animals across borders for food and greener pasteur’s to feed them. Even though nomads are largely self-sufficient, the governments are not able to control their movements. Neither Somalia nor Somaliland could survive without the nomads, because 60 to 65 per cent of their GDP is dependent of the nomadic livestock. Those governments depend on the money and sales generated by these nomads, which significantly affects the economy of the wider nation.
Instead of hiring the militants to police the movement of the nomadic herders, the governments should provide security and allow them to move freely across the borders of each nation. This free movements of people should not be limited to the nomadic herders, but also extended to citizens of both countries. The citizens of both nations should also have allowed to conduct business freely across each other borders, akin to a free trade zone. Since such free movements of individuals across both borders will require security, it should be the responsibility of each nation to ensure adequate policing and safety concerns are addressed within their borders.
Give a right to everyone in all Somalis members states such as Djibouti, Somalia, Somali regional government Ethiopia and Somaliland to live, work and make business in any other country. Allow them to apply for permanent residency across these Somali nations as well. The exact details and regulations can be negotiated by each country respectively before reaching an agreement. The governments can deport the criminals or people deemed a danger to national security, in addition, each respective country can impose limited restrictions in regard to migrants.
Unemployment and the social market economy
The two countries are working together to endorse social market economy aimed at social progress and creating full employment for the youths. The citizens of the two nations need prosperity, social development, economic well-being, and human development. The two nations need to put their differences aside, and come together in peace and harmony. To achieve tangible developments in the economy, the two nations and their leaders will have to create an environment that can benefit both their populations like a free trade zone.
The leaders would need to set up an intergovernmental organization that can promote the economic integration of its two-member countries and at the same time benefit through trade other countries in the horn Africa. The two countries have enough resources such as agriculture, fishery, livestock, and natural resources.
To fully capitalize on the aforementioned resources will require open-minded progressive leaders that have the guts, vision and capability see the vision through.
Unemployment rate is markedly high in Somalia, while Somaliland has lower unemployment rate, although both nations have huge unemployment rates among youths. Hundreds of thousands of youths every year immigrate to overseas. To tackle this problem and other problems too, policies will need to be initiated to ensure the free movement of youth, goods, services and investments. Job creation is the only strategy that can not only reduce the unemployment rate, but also help to minimize youth migration to the western world.